Resep tradisional

Hati Meledak Setelah Remaja Berjalan Pulang dari Toko Kelontong, Pria Berusia 96 Tahun

Hati Meledak Setelah Remaja Berjalan Pulang dari Toko Kelontong, Pria Berusia 96 Tahun

Pesan dukungan telah membanjiri dari seluruh dunia

Rasa sakit di hati Anda saat ini adalah normal.

Internet telah jatuh cinta pada Christian Trouesdale, seorang karyawan supermarket berusia 18 tahun dari Aldi di Manchester, Inggris, yang baru-baru ini membuat hati semua orang berdebar ketika dia terlihat berjalan pulang dengan seorang pria berusia 96 tahun, bergandengan tangan.

Trouesdale pertama kali terlihat oleh seorang penduduk setempat, yang mengambil foto keduanya dan menulis di Facebook bahwa perbuatan baiknya adalah "hal yang indah untuk disaksikan."

Ketika dihubungi oleh The Bolton News, pemuda itu mengklarifikasi bahwa ini adalah kedua kalinya dia mengantar pelanggan ini pulang, dan dia memastikan tidak apa-apa untuk meninggalkan pekerjaan sebentar.

"Saya bertanya kepada manajer saya apakah boleh mengantarnya pulang dan dia bilang itu hal yang benar untuk dilakukan, jadi saya melakukannya," kata Trouesdale kepada surat kabar itu. “Kami mengobrol baik tentang segala hal mulai dari pemilihan umum hingga sejarah Horwich – dia tahu banyak tentang segalanya. Orang tua saya telah membesarkan saya untuk memperlakukan orang lain seperti Anda ingin diperlakukan sendiri.”

Tentu saja, Internet kemudian meledak dengan kasih sayang untuk Christian, dan orang lain membuat kampanye penggalangan dana untuk "mendapatkan bonus internet yang bagus untuk seorang Kristen."

Pada hari sejak kampanye diluncurkan, orang-orang telah menyumbangkan £303 dari tujuan £500. Jika Anda ingin berdonasi, Anda dapat melakukannya di GoFundMe.


Anda perlu melakukan ereksi secara teratur untuk menjaga bentuk penis Anda. "Ini pada dasarnya harus dilakukan," kata Tobias Kohler, MD, asisten profesor urologi di Southern Illinois University School of Medicine.

Untuk mempertahankan nada yang sehat, otot polos penis harus secara berkala diperkaya dengan oksigen oleh aliran darah yang membuat penis membesar dan membuatnya ereksi, kata Kohler.

Jika pria secara fisik bisa ereksi, tetapi tidak pernah ereksi di siang hari -- mungkin mereka menemukan diri mereka dalam keadaan yang sangat tidak erotis untuk waktu yang lama -- mereka tidak perlu khawatir. Otak memiliki fungsi pemeliharaan penis otomatis bawaan.

Impuls dari otak menyebabkan ereksi selama fase mimpi tidur, yang disebut fase REM. Tidak masalah jika Anda mengalami mimpi seks yang panas atau mimpi buruk kiamat zombie - penis Anda menjadi keras selama periode siklus tidur itu.

Tetapi beberapa pria secara fisik tidak dapat ereksi, seperti mereka yang mengalami trauma pada saraf yang terlibat atau yang mengalami kerusakan saraf atau pembuluh darah yang disebabkan oleh diabetes.

"Jika mereka tidak melakukan apa pun untuk mempertahankan ereksi normal, mereka akan mengalami pemendekan penis," kata Kohler. Tanpa ereksi yang teratur, jaringan penis bisa menjadi kurang elastis dan menyusut, membuat penis lebih pendek 1-2 sentimeter.

Perangkat seperti pompa vakum, yang memaksa penis membengkak dengan darah, dapat membantu pria dengan masalah ereksi fisik menjaga kesehatan penis, kata Kohler.


Penggunaan [ sunting ]

Barel dapat digerakkan oleh piston,‌ [ Edisi batuan dasar saja ] air dan lava mengalir di sekitar tong tanpa mempengaruhinya. Lava dapat membuat api di blok udara di sebelah tong seolah-olah tong itu mudah terbakar, tetapi tong itu tidak benar-benar terbakar dan tidak bisa dibakar.

Wadah [ sunting ]

Barel memiliki inventaris kontainer dengan 27 slot, yang sama dengan peti tunggal. Mereka dapat diisi oleh penetes dan keduanya diisi dan dikosongkan oleh hopper. Saat pecah, barel menjatuhkan isi wadah dan item barel itu sendiri.

Untuk membuka GUI barel, gunakan kontrol Gunakan Item. Untuk memindahkan item antara inventaris barel dan inventaris pemain atau hotbar saat GUI barel terbuka, seret atau geser-klik item. Menahan Alt dan mengklik dua kali sambil menahan item akan memindahkan semua item dari jenis yang diklik masuk atau keluar dari laras sejauh ruang tersedia untuk mereka.‌ [ Edisi Java saja ] Untuk keluar dari GUI barel, gunakan kontrol Esc.

Tidak seperti peti, tong dapat ditempatkan di bawah balok padat dan masih dapat dibuka.

Secara default, GUI per barel diberi label "Barrel". Label GUI barel dapat diubah dengan memberi nama barel di landasan sebelum menempatkannya atau dengan menggunakan perintah /data‌ [ Edisi Java saja ] (misalnya, untuk memberi label peti di (0,64,0) sebagai "Bonus Barrel!", gunakan /data merge block 0 64 0 ).

Di dalam Edisi Jawa, per barel dapat "dikunci" dengan menyetel tag Kuncinya menggunakan perintah /data. Jika tag Kunci laras tidak kosong, laras tidak dapat dibuka kecuali pemain memegang item dengan nama yang sama dengan teks tag Kunci. Misalnya, untuk mengunci barel di (0,64,0) sehingga barel tidak dapat dibuka kecuali pemain memegang item bernama "Kunci Barel", gunakan /data merge block 0 64 0 .

Pindah profesi [ sunting ]

Jika sebuah desa memiliki tong yang belum diklaim oleh penduduk desa, setiap penduduk desa yang tidak memiliki blok lokasi pekerjaan yang dipilih memiliki kesempatan untuk mengubah profesinya menjadi nelayan.‌

Bahan Bakar [ sunting ]

Barel dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar di tungku, melebur 1,5 item per blok.

Blok Catatan [ sunting ]

Barel dapat ditempatkan di bawah blok nada untuk menghasilkan suara "bass".

Babi [ sunting ]

Piglins menjadi memusuhi pemain yang membuka atau memecahkan barel.


Bagaimana perasaanmu?

Dorongan kuat yang didapat orang dari penggunaan shabu menyebabkan banyak orang ketagihan sejak awal. Saat digunakan, zat kimia yang disebut dopamin membanjiri bagian otak yang mengatur perasaan senang. Pengguna juga merasa percaya diri dan energik.

Seorang pengguna dapat menjadi kecanduan dengan cepat dan segera menemukan bahwa mereka akan melakukan apa saja untuk terburu-buru lagi. Saat mereka terus menggunakan obat, mereka membangun toleransi. Itu berarti mereka membutuhkan dosis yang lebih tinggi untuk mendapatkan dosis yang sama. Semakin tinggi dosisnya, semakin tinggi risikonya. Dapatkan informasi lebih lanjut tentang bagaimana penggunaan shabu mempengaruhi tubuh.

Lanjutan


Riset

Meskipun sedikit penelitian medis telah dilakukan tentang apa yang merupakan diet sehat untuk orang tua, satu studi medis menunjukkan bahwa apa yang disebut diet Mediterania mungkin bermanfaat bagi mereka yang berusia 60-an, 70-an dan 80-an. Studi yang diterbitkan pada tahun 2004 di jurnal medis "Public Health Nutrition" mengamati orang tua di Yunani, Spanyol, Denmark dan Australia. Ditemukan bahwa diet Mediterania, yang mencakup banyak buah-buahan, sayuran, minyak zaitun, biji-bijian dan ikan, dikaitkan dengan umur panjang pada orang tua, dan merupakan pola diet yang sehat.


Masalah Uang

Penderita iStockphoto AD mengalami kesulitan dengan pemikiran abstrak saat penyakit berkembang, membuat angka dan uang sangat merepotkan.

Meskipun melewatkan pembayaran bulanan sesekali bukanlah sesuatu yang perlu dikhawatirkan (setidaknya dalam hal kesehatan otak), jika orang yang Anda cintai tiba-tiba mengalami kesulitan menangani uang, membayar tagihan, mengelola anggaran, atau bahkan memahami angka yang diwakili, itu bisa menjadi tanda demensia.


Bagaimana ramen mengambil alih dunia

Saya menemukan di gudang halaman belakang selama masa paceklik, ramen instan telah menjadi raksasa makanan global. Berjalanlah ke hampir semua toko makanan, di mana saja, dan kemungkinan Anda akan menemukan beberapa paket warna-warni yang berisi rakit mie anyaman kering dan paket rasa foil.

Tapi ramen terus berkembang, muncul sebagai favorit jalanan Jepang, makanan pokok kamar asrama, obsesi pecinta kuliner dan, yang terbaru, campuran yang artisanal dan nyaman.

Asal usul hidangan yang kami sebut ramen sedikit tidak jelas, tetapi para ahli percaya bahwa pedagang Cina pertama kali membawa mie gandum ke pelabuhan Jepang Yokohama pada akhir abad ke-19.

Bahkan, sampai tahun 1950-an mereka disebut sebagai soba "Cina", setelah mie soba Jepang. Penutur Jepang juga mengambil kata Cina untuk mie yang ditarik, la-mian, dan menukar suara R untuk L, secara fonetis berubah la-mian ke dalam ramen. Nama baru macet.

Ramen melanda negara itu setelah Perang Dunia II, ketika AS membanjiri Jepang yang kelaparan dengan gandum murah. Gaya daerah populer muncul saat koki ramen meracik dan menciptakan varietas yang tak terhitung jumlahnya.

Pada tahun 1957, seorang pria Osaka yang inovatif bernama Momofuku Ando melihat para pekerja berbaris di sebuah toko lokal, menunggu semangkuk mie yang mengepul. Dia memutuskan dia bisa mempercepat proses persiapan mie dan membantu menopang para pekerja yang dengan cepat membangun kembali Jepang pascaperang.

Setelah bereksperimen di gudang halaman belakang rumahnya selama setahun, mengutak-atik panas, gandum, MSG, dan minyak kelapa sawit, dia menemukan mie instan yang bisa direhidrasi dan dimasak dalam tiga menit.

Produk pertamanya, “Chikin Ramen” memasuki pasar pada tahun 1958, meluncurkan perusahaan Ando, ​​Nissin. Lebih dari empat dekade kemudian, orang Jepang akan memilih ramen instan sebagai penemuan terbaik negara di abad ke-20.

Nissin merilis lini mie instan Top Ramen yang sekarang ada di mana-mana di AS pada tahun 1971, diikuti oleh Cup O’ Noodles, yang dimasak dengan air mendidih yang dituangkan ke dalam wadah saji busa plastik.

Pertama kali dijual di AS seharga 25 sen, trifecta garam-lemak-karbohidrat ramen instan yang tak tertahankan mendapatkan daya tarik dengan siswa yang sadar biaya dan rumah tangga yang hemat. Bahkan hari ini, pembeli Amerika dapat membeli ramen dalam 12 bungkus dengan harga kurang dari 19 sen per porsi.

Selama krisis ekonomi Jepang tahun 1990-an dan 2000-an, orang Jepang memeluk akar kelas pekerja ramen, menjadikannya salah satu hidangan paling populer di negara itu. Pada saat itu, ramen juga telah mencapai setiap sudut dunia.

Murah dan tidak mudah busuk, ramen menjadi makanan pokok bagi orang miskin di dunia dan menjadi pilihan umum untuk paket bantuan makanan. Untuk menangkis tusukan bahwa produknya tidak sehat, pembuat ramen membentuk Asosiasi Mie Instan Dunia.

Anggota telah menyumbangkan lebih dari 5 juta paket ke daerah yang dilanda bencana, termasuk New Orleans setelah Badai Katrina pada tahun 2005 dan Yunnan, Cina setelah gempa bumi pada tahun 2014. Kritikus menyerang kandungan garam, lemak, dan kimia ramen instan yang tinggi, tetapi mengakui bahwa produk tersebut memuaskan rasa lapar .

Pada tahun 2004, mega-chef Amerika David Chang menjungkirbalikkan reputasi ramen sebagai makanan yang murah dan diproses dengan baik untuk massa ketika ia membuka Momofuku Noodle Bar di New York City.

Dinamakan untuk penemu ramen instan, Momofuku menyajikan semangkuk mie artisan yang mengepul, di atasnya dengan perut babi Berkshire yang dipelihara secara manusiawi dan telur yang dibesarkan di peternakan. Formulanya menjadi hit, dan pelanggan mengalami antrean besar.

Keberhasilan Momofuku melambungkan ramen ke halaman majalah makanan mengkilap dan menjadikannya makanan saat ini. Pengusaha restoran melompat pada tren, meluncurkan toko ramen, atau ramen-ya, di seluruh negeri.

Mencari jalan tengah antara mie Manhattan kelas atas dan makanan super yang terbuat dari busa, Sun Noodle yang berbasis di New Jersey, yang memasok Momofuku dan restoran ramen top lainnya, memperkenalkan produk ramen konsumen kemasan yang hanya memiliki kemiripan dengan pendahulunya.

Dijual di toko-toko makanan Asia dan kelas atas, mie segar memerlukan pendinginan dan tidak mengandung MSG. Juga tidak seperti nenek moyang mereka, paket datang dengan paket rasa yang berisi dasar sup pekat dan rempah-rempah. (Dengan ramen instan, isi bungkusnya menjadi bubuk.)

Untuk penelitian dan pengembangan lebih lanjut ke dalam ramen, perusahaan juga membuka “Ramen Lab” di lingkungan Nolita New York. Seminar dan pencicipan ramen diadakan di sana, bersama dengan "penerbangan ramen" khusus reservasi pada beberapa malam.

Dalam perkembangan yang mungkin tak terelakkan, Chang mengumumkan ramen mati, ditebang oleh keberadaannya di mana-mana yang dipicu oleh Internet. Dalam majalah triwulanannya, Persik Beruntung, ia berpendapat bahwa ramen bukan lagi makanan populer seperti dulu, dan keterampilan, resep, dan tradisi membuat ramen tidak lagi diturunkan dari master ke magang. “Sekarang Internet mengubah segalanya,” keluh Chang. “Orang-orang bisa mendapatkan semua informasi yang mereka inginkan secara instan, dan itu telah membunuh inovasi dalam ramen.”

Dari sudut pandang koki, dia mungkin benar, tetapi lebih dari 105 miliar porsi ramen instan dimakan pada tahun 2013, misalnya. Analis industri makanan mengatakan jumlah itu akan terus meningkat, dan ramen akan terus melaju menuju dominasi kuliner dunia.


Las Tunas: Lingkungan Masa Depan

Ada jalan-jalan yang lebih baik untuk berjalan, untuk mengintip ke jendela toko bentangan Las Tunas Drive yang dimulai tepat di sebelah barat perbatasan Alhambra-San Gabriel dan berakhir beberapa blok dari San Gabriel Boulevard, memiliki sedikit arsitektur yang signifikan, dan tidak ada yang seperti pohon- keindahan berjajar. Di trotoar, tidak ada yang berdesak-desakan, tidak ada yang mengangguk ramah. . . sepertinya tidak ada orang yang lewat sama sekali, kecuali orang aneh yang sesekali berolahraga di pagi hari dalam perjalanannya ke kedai kopi.

Namun, dalam beberapa blok, ada toko makanan dan restoran dari 13 kelompok etnis yang berbeda. Dan setidaknya lima restoran-restoran ini mungkin bernilai 20 mil jalan memutar. Mungkin ada beberapa pejalan kaki yang keluar karena semua orang sedang makan atau berbelanja, mengurus bisnis, dan kemudian kembali ke mobil mereka.

Mereka mungkin menuju ke bagian lain dari Las Tunas, mungkin 10 menit ke barat ke Temple City, di mana jalan dipagari dengan toko-toko dan restoran era '40-an dan '50-an - toko lampu dan kap lampu yang digawangi oleh lampu raksasa, toko reparasi radio di mana sebagian besar stok yang dipugar dengan indah setidaknya berusia 30 tahun, apotek kuno, rumah chop-suey dengan tampilan pagoda Chinatown dan toko impor Belanda-Indonesia yang bagus di mana Anda dapat mengambil yang berapi-api sambal , cokelat Belanda yang enak dan sepasang sepatu kayu.

Di sebelah timur, di Alhambra, Las Tunas disebut Main Street dan sebenarnya terlihat seperti itu. Ada toko roti dan toko buku dan pasar India yang bagus. Tetapi lebih dari beberapa etalase kosong, tidak diragukan lagi ditandai untuk pembangunan kembali.

Hanya ketika Las Tunas mulai terlihat seperti arteri lalu lintas utama lainnya, segalanya menjadi sangat menarik bagi orang yang lapar. Memang benar, ada beberapa bisnis yang tampak tradisional, bahkan bisnis yang indah di bentangan ini. Bun 'n Burger, restoran dengan neon animasi yang fantastis, tampak seperti sesuatu dari Roger Rabbit.

Tapi jantung distrik makan Las Tunas pada dasarnya terdiri dari dua mal mini, saling melayani di setiap sisi Las Tunas di Mission Drive. Mini-mal mungkin jelek dan tidak istimewa, rangkaian bisnis kecil yang memiliki sedikit kesamaan satu sama lain, tetapi mereka menarik dibandingkan dengan alternatifnya - sebuah kota menjadi versi taman hiburan yang "direvitalisasi", diisi dengan toko rantai .

Dalam kondisi terbaiknya, mini-mal dapat mewujudkan mimpi: kesempatan bagi pengusaha yang kekurangan modal dengan bakat shish kebab atau nasi ayam Hainan, kesempatan bagi penduduk lingkungan untuk menjelajahi dunia masakan.

Di dalam dunia mandiri Las Tunas Plaza, misalnya, tempat parkirnya hampir selalu terisi penuh, tiga restoran unggulan, satu demi satu, menyajikan makanan Indonesia, Taiwan, dan Vietnam.

Sabtu sore, antrean tumpah keluar dari pintu Golden Deli, toko mie Vietnam tempat pengunjung tetap mengetahuinya pho dac biet sepadan dengan menunggu 15 menit untuk meja. Hampir semua orang di tempat itu memiliki semangkuk atau sepiring mie di hadapan mereka, menyeruput dan mengerjakan untaian dengan sumpit sebagai lagu pop Vietnam--mungkin versi Inggris-Viet dari "Lyin' Eyes" The Eagles--menyanyikan suaranya sistem.

Di sebelah, di restoran Taiwan Sun Shine, lentera keberuntungan kertas oranye terang, berkibar tertiup angin di ambang pintu. Sebagian besar pelanggan Cina datang untuk menikmati semangkuk tahu hangat yang menenangkan dan roti goreng Cina yang lezat untuk sarapan saat makan siang dan makan malam. Ada ayam merah yang dimasak dengan jahe yang sangat kuat, yang pelayannya, khawatir Anda tidak akan menyukai tulangnya, mungkin membuat Anda kecewa. dari memesan (hidangannya sepadan dengan masalahnya), dan juga makanan laut yang luar biasa. Hampir setiap saat, Anda mungkin melihat bola api meledak dari wajan pemilik koki Chi Chou Chen.

Sore hari, Taman Borobudur menjadi semacam toko malt Indonesia, dipenuhi oleh remaja-remaja yang menyusui minuman jelly rumput manis yang tampak asing dan menyeruput semangkuk besar kari. laksa mie di akhir pekan, ayam goreng cili yang enak populer di kalangan keluarga.

Tampaknya tidak adil bahwa mini-mal yang sama ini juga merupakan rumah bagi restoran Thailand dan barbekyu Cina yang mungkin menonjol di sebagian besar lingkungan lainnya. Ini sangat tidak adil ketika Anda memperhitungkan mini-mal di seberang jalan.

Ada restoran Malaysia Yazmin di mana rujak's hal--salad tropis yang menyegarkan ditaburi saus kedelai yang kental dan bertinta. Daging sapi adalah apa yang Anda dapatkan di restoran Vietnam Pagode - - tujuh hidangan yang luar biasa. Pada tampang manis Bento toko, Kintaro, anak-anak Jepang dari daerah tersebut mampir untuk menikmati roti gulung California dan sekaleng Teh Sore Kirin, cara yang dilakukan oleh anak-anak sekolah menengah satu generasi sebelum mereka untuk makan burger dan soda ceri di restoran lokal.

Tetapi lebih dari restoran dan pasar yang menarik, lingkungan ini, seperti kota kecil tradisional lainnya, mendapatkan karakternya dari orang-orang yang bekerja dan berbelanja di sana. Berjalanlah di lingkungan yang tampaknya tidak dapat dilalui ini, berbicaralah dengan orang-orang dan Anda akan bertemu dengan penjaga toko yang hangat dan ramah seperti yang ditawarkan kota kecil mana pun.

Anda akan bertemu Kenzo Yamada, pemilik toko kelontong Jepang Yama Seafood, suaranya serak ramah. Dari stasiunnya di belakang konter ikan dan daging, dia menasihati pelanggan dan memastikan mereka pergi dengan senang hati. "Coba ini," katanya kepada seorang wanita, menyerahkan setumpuk ikan putih terkecil untuk diperiksa. Dia membungkuk dan menunjukkan sampel itu kepada bayinya yang duduk di kereta dorongnya, bayi itu meminta persetujuan.

“Saya sangat beruntung,” kata Yamada, “pelanggan baik di sini. Wanita itu, dia sudah datang ke sini tujuh tahun. ”

Maarten dan Joan Keller baru menjalankan bisnis selama enam tahun, tetapi seperti yang dikatakan Joan Keller, "Apa yang kami temukan adalah ceruk di dinding." Bisnis mereka: tirai renda, taplak meja renda, dan sederet makanan impor Inggris. “Orang-orang mencari sesuatu dari rumah,” kata Keller, “jadi kami mendapatkan apa yang kami bisa.” Ada kaleng-kaleng shortbread, stoples selai jeruk, botol-botol cuka malt coklat dan beberapa hal seperti puding marmite dan semolina krim yang hanya bisa disukai oleh orang Inggris.

Kembali ke rumah untuk Kellers, bagaimanapun, bukanlah Inggris, tetapi Belanda. Jadi ada set krim Belanda biru-putih dan tempat garam dan merica bermotif kincir angin. Tidak ada makanan Belanda, keluarga Keller tidak ingin bersaing dengan toko impor di Temple City. Selain itu, inti dari bisnis ini adalah renda.

“Tirai saya memiliki panjang dan lebar yang tidak terbatas,” kata Keller. "Ini tidak seperti department store di mana Anda terjebak dengan apa yang mereka berikan kepada Anda." Semua renda untuk gorden dan taplak meja diimpor dari Eropa, kebanyakan dari Belanda, Austria, Jerman, Skotlandia dan Inggris. Tapi jangan meminta Keller untuk memberi Anda tirai renda dengan warna biru atau merah muda atau warna non-renda lainnya. “Saya hanya menjual putih dan krem,” kata Keller. Dan jangan bertanya tentang tirai non-renda: "Tirai berat tidak saya buat," kata Keller. "Aku tinggal dengan rendaku."


Carol Dykstra adalah nama aslinya, tetapi kenalan memanggilnya “Ms. Cahaya matahari."

Julukan ini mendahului resolusi Tahun Baru 2021 Dykstra. Warga senior Carlsbad sebenarnya membuat dua resolusi tahun ini. Salah satunya adalah untuk menurunkan berat badan. Yang lainnya adalah membawa secercah sinar matahari ke dalam kehidupan seseorang pada setiap hari di tahun 2021.

Sejauh ini, dia belum kehilangan berat badan, tetapi dia telah memberikan sinar matahari, terkadang kepada beberapa orang dalam satu hari.

Dykstra memberikan kartu ulang tahun dan e-card kepada sesama penghuni komunitas pensiunan La Costa Glen pada hari istimewa mereka dan sebuah anggrek untuk menyambut setiap pendatang baru. Jika seseorang memiliki "tonggak sejarah" ulang tahun, dia menambahkan buket balon.

Dia menjalankan tugas untuk orang-orang yang tidak lagi bisa mengemudi. Faktanya, dia harus mengunjungi tiga toko berbeda untuk membeli barang kebutuhan sehari-hari untuk tetangganya yang berusia 96 tahun.

Dia mengajak orang makan siang. Dia membuat panggilan telepon untuk menghibur seseorang yang dia pikir kesepian.

Dia baru-baru ini mengirimkan tanaman dan kartu ke tetangga yang kembali ke rumah dari operasi punggung.

Dia memberikan bunga kepada pengurus rumah tangganya, membagikan makanan ringan yang sehat kepada pekerja pemeliharaan dan batangan protein, campuran kacang-kacangan dan minuman kepada tukang kebun di La Costa Glen. “Mereka bekerja keras sepanjang hari dan ketika saya melihat mereka, saya memberi mereka hadiah,” katanya.

Kemarin, dia memiliki karangan bunga yang siap untuk diberikan kepada tetangganya yang berusia 93 tahun yang telah menjalani kehidupan yang sangat aktif karena "Saya hanya berpikir itu akan menghiburnya."

“Bunga adalah hal favorit saya untuk diberikan,” kata Dykstra. "Tapi itu menjadi mahal." Terkadang dia memberi stroberi atau See's Candies. “Saya memberi diri saya uang saku setiap hari, dan biayanya keluar dari itu,” katanya.

Dykstra, 78, dibesarkan di pinggiran Philadelphia dan mengajar di sekolah di Iowa. Suaminya meninggal lebih dari dua tahun lalu. “Kami tidak memiliki anak,” katanya, dan tidak ada seorang pun yang tersisa di keluarga dekatnya. "Dengan waktu apa pun yang tersisa, saya ingin membawa sukacita bagi orang-orang, membuat orang-orang bahagia."

Jadi itulah yang dia lakukan — mulai dari mengantarkan suguhan untuk Hari Kasih Sayang kepada tetangganya, hingga membuat goodie bag untuk penata taman di komunitas pensiunan.

Dykstra mengatakan perbuatan baiknya tidak terbatas pada La Costa Glen. Dia pernah pergi ke Santa Barbara untuk menghibur mantan tetangganya.

Beberapa tindakan kebaikannya yang sederhana direncanakan. Ketika saya berbicara dengannya, dia telah membeli karangan bunga untuk dikirimkan keesokan harinya kepada seseorang yang dia pikir membutuhkan dorongan semangat. Tindakan lain bersifat spontan.

“Saya adalah penerima, dan itu lebih dari satu hari,” kata Judy La Bounty. Segera setelah dia kembali ke vilanya di La Costa Glen setelah operasi lutut, dia mendengar ketukan di pintunya. Itu Dykstra, yang tinggal di ujung lain dari kompleks 800 penduduk, bertanya apakah dia bisa membantu.

Setelah meletakkan tas barang-barang dari bulan La Bounty di rehabilitasi, Dykstra menawarkan untuk pergi ke toko untuk mendapatkan persediaan yang dibutuhkan.

“Dia pergi keluar dan membeli Gatorade, jus tomat, dan minuman berprotein,” kata La Bounty. “Dia membeli semuanya dan memasukkannya ke dalam lemari es dan tidak akan membiarkan saya membayarnya.

“Setiap hari dia akan menelepon dan bertanya, 'Apa yang bisa saya lakukan untuk Anda?' Dia akan datang membawakan saya makanan atau membawakan saya teka-teki. Suatu hari, dia berkata, 'Saya ingin mengajak Anda jalan-jalan di sepanjang pantai. Apakah Anda pikir Anda bisa masuk ke dalam mobil?’

“Lalu, ‘Aku ingin mengajakmu makan siang.’ Aku yakin aku sudah makan siang dengannya lima kali. Dia terus menelepon dan bertanya: 'Apakah ada yang Anda butuhkan?' Dia benar-benar membawa saya di bawah sayapnya, ”tambah janda itu.

Eksekutif La Costa Glen Susan Hollers menyebut Dykstra sebagai kebahagiaan. “Dia sangat positif dan ceria sepanjang waktu. Dia hanya membawa cahaya ke dalam ruangan.”

Kepribadian Dykstra yang optimis selalu menjadi ciri khasnya. "Saya suka hal-hal bahagia - senyum, sinar matahari, dan pelangi," katanya. Teman sekamarnya di kampus menjulukinya "Sunshine."

Kesukarelaan dan tindakan kebaikan telah lama menjadi cara hidup - tetapi tidak setiap hari, dia tertawa. Dia dan suaminya mensponsori suksesi keluarga pengungsi ketika mereka tinggal di Iowa — dua keluarga dari Laos, satu dari Vietnam, dua dari Bosnia.

Selama di Iowa, ia mengambil cuti dari mengajar menjadi pekerja sosial selama tujuh tahun. “Begitu banyak orang memiliki kehidupan yang menyedihkan,” katanya. “Itu adalah pengalaman yang membuka mata.”

Dykstra menegaskan bahwa dia benar-benar mendapat manfaat dari hobinya. Pekan lalu, seorang tetangga memberi tahu dia bahwa komunitas itu beruntung memilikinya. Pada Kamis pagi, seorang asing mendekatinya di Trader Joe's untuk memuji senyumnya. Pada bulan Desember, seorang pekerja muda di McDonald's yang sering dia kunjungi memberinya sekaleng kue.

“Petualangannya tahun ini, dengan tindakan kebaikan setiap hari, benar-benar menyentuh hati banyak orang,” catat Hollers. “Selama pandemi, orang-orang sangat terisolasi, dan dia mampu membawa orang keluar dari cangkangnya dan melakukan banyak hal untuk moral dan kesejahteraan emosional.”

Ada bukti ilmiah tentang manfaat kebaikan. Laporan Mayo Clinic 2018 mengutip beberapa penelitian yang menunjukkan bahwa tindakan kebaikan meningkatkan kesehatan, sebagian, dengan mengaktifkan hormon yang disebut oksitosin yang meningkatkan emosi.

“Jika Anda baik kepada orang lain, terkadang Anda mendapatkan kejutan yang tidak dapat dijelaskan,” kata Dykstra

Pelajaran terpenting dalam hidup, dia menekankan, adalah memperlakukan orang seperti Anda ingin diperlakukan.

Dykstra tidak berencana untuk berhenti pada 30 Desember 2021. “Untuk waktu apa pun yang tersisa di dunia ini, saya ingin membawa sukacita bagi kehidupan orang-orang.”

Tidak mengherankan bahwa dia harus menyela percakapan kami pada hari Jumat — untuk bergegas membantu menyiapkan ransel untuk digunakan penduduk jika terjadi keadaan darurat.

Dapatkan Essential San Diego, pagi hari kerja

Dapatkan berita utama teratas dari Union-Tribune di kotak masuk pagi hari kerja Anda, termasuk berita utama, lokal, olahraga, bisnis, hiburan, dan opini.

Anda mungkin sesekali menerima konten promosi dari San Diego Union-Tribune.


AKU AKU AKU. Refleksi

Refleksi berikut disusun pada awal tahun 2015.

Narasi yang menarik dengan protagonis yang dapat dihubungkan dengan semua orang seharusnya menjadi inti dari penulisan fiksi yang berkualitas, belum lagi jurnalisme yang sukses. Namun tidak ada dua orang yang menceritakan kisah dengan cara yang sama. Bagaimana sebuah cerita berubah tergantung pada siapa yang menceritakannya? Apa akarnya yang tidak terlihat?

Ini mengungkapkan bagaimana orang yang berbeda memetakan garis keturunan gelombang aktivitas anti-polisi pada tahun 2014. Beberapa melihat kembali ke pembebasan orang yang membunuh Trayvon Martin, beberapa pembunuhan Oscar Grant, beberapa kerusuhan Rodney King. Siapa nama yang kita ingat? Di Ferguson, grafiti di QT menyatakan "LA '92/Watts '65/Spanyol '36." Garis keturunan mana itu?

Demonstran naik melalui Ferguson setelah pengumuman dewan juri, 24 November.


Diperdagangkan: Bagaimana Epidemi Opioid Mendorong Eksploitasi Seksual di Vermont

Saya sedang duduk di meja dapur saya pada suatu sore yang panas di bulan Agustus tahun 2013 ketika saya mendapat telepon dari nomor yang tidak saya kenal. Saya menjawab, berharap bahwa itu adalah saudara perempuan saya, yang tidak saya ajak bicara selama beberapa minggu. Ini tidak sepenuhnya tidak biasa — Maddie kecanduan heroin dan kadang-kadang menghilang selama berhari-hari atau berminggu-minggu. Seperti biasa ketika saya tidak mendengar kabar darinya, saya khawatir.

Tapi bukan suara kakakku yang kudengar di telepon, itu adalah seorang pria yang memperkenalkan dirinya sebagai detektif polisi Brooklyn. Saya mondar-mandir ketika dia menjelaskan bahwa saudara perempuan saya telah ditangkap. Dia aman, dia meyakinkan saya, meskipun menarik diri dari heroin. Dia menekankan bahwa saya perlu menjemputnya segera setelah dia didakwa. Saya perlu memasukkannya langsung ke dalam mobil dan membawanya keluar dari New York City.

Dia tidak jelas ketika saya bertanya apa yang sedang terjadi, dan saya tidak repot-repot bertanya kepada saudara perempuan saya ketika dia akhirnya meneleponnya. Saya pikir itu karena dia mabuk sehingga suaranya terdengar begitu datar, lempengan abu-abu dengan retakan tipis kesedihan mengalir di dalamnya. Baru pada hari berikutnya ketika dia menelepon kembali, detektif itu akhirnya menjelaskan urgensinya: Kakak perempuan saya telah diperdagangkan secara seksual oleh beberapa "orang jahat", dan itu tidak aman untuknya di New York.

Apa yang saya ketahui tentang pengalaman kakak saya di sana seperti secarik kertas yang direnggut dari angin saat mereka terbang, masing-masing ditulis dengan tangan yang berbeda. Perjalanan Maddie diatur oleh seorang wanita yang membeli obat-obatan dari St. Albans, meskipun tujuannya tidak jelas: Maddie memberi tahu ibuku saat itu dia akan menonton pertunjukan Broadway. Dia mengatakan kepada saya kemudian dia pikir dia akan membuat kartu kredit palsu. Dia memberi tahu saudari kita Maura bahwa dia sedang memikirkan heroin.

Setelah dia berada di sana selama seminggu, dia menelepon sahabatnya dan memintanya untuk datang menjemputnya. Dia mengatakan bahwa ketika dia sampai di New York semuanya tampak baik-baik saja, tetapi sekarang pria yang bersamanya memberinya obat untuk membuatnya tetap tinggal. Dia tidak tahu di mana dia berada, tetapi dia mengatakan dia akan segera menelepon kembali dengan alamat. Seminggu kemudian dia menelepon temannya lagi. Kali ini dia panik, berteriak. Dia telah meraih telepon, lari ke kamar mandi dan mengunci diri di dalam. Temannya bisa mendengar ketukan di pintu saat Maddie memohon untuk dijemput, tetapi kakak perempuan saya tidak tahu di mana dia berada.

Detektif menjelaskan kepada saya bahwa Maddie telah ditahan di kamar motel oleh orang-orang yang telah mengambil fotonya, mempostingnya di situs web yang digunakan untuk mengiklankan seks komersial, dan memaksanya berhubungan seks dengan pria yang menanggapi iklan tersebut dengan menahan heroin dan mengancamnya dengan penarikan. Dia ditangkap ketika polisi menepikan para pedagangnya dan menemukannya di dalam mobil. Mereka menggunakan perlengkapan narkoba di sakunya sebagai alasan untuk menangkapnya: Mereka tahu dia dalam masalah.

Karena ada surat perintah penangkapan Maddie, dia tidak dibebaskan setelah dakwaannya. Alih-alih, dia berubah dari ditahan di kamar motel di mana dia dipaksa berhubungan seks dengan orang asing menjadi dipenjara selama enam minggu di Pulau Rikers sebelum dia diekstradisi ke Vermont. Pertama kali saya mengunjunginya di Rikers, dia menangis ketika dia mengatakan kepada saya bahwa dia tidak bisa berbicara tentang apa yang terjadi padanya. "Itu benar-benar buruk, Katie," katanya, dan mengulurkan tangannya untuk menunjukkan di mana dia telah dibakar dengan rokok.

Pemaksaan, Penipuan dan Pemaksaan

Ketika saya menerima telepon itu enam tahun yang lalu, saya pikir perdagangan seks adalah sesuatu yang terjadi pada orang-orang di negara lain atau pada wanita yang dibawa ke negara ini untuk bekerja di panti pijat. Saya tidak tahu itu adalah sesuatu yang bisa terjadi pada saudara perempuan saya. Sebagian karena saya tidak mengerti apa itu perdagangan seks.

Undang-undang Perlindungan Korban Perdagangan dan Kekerasan federal tahun 2000 mendefinisikannya sebagai "tindakan seks komersial . yang disebabkan oleh kekerasan, penipuan atau paksaan, atau di mana orang yang dibujuk untuk melakukan tindakan tersebut belum mencapai usia 18 tahun."

Apa perbedaan antara perdagangan seks dan apa yang biasa disebut prostitusi? Pemaksaan, penipuan dan pemaksaan. Prostitusi, juga disebut pekerjaan seks komersial, adalah ketika orang dewasa secara sukarela menukar seks dengan uang atau sesuatu yang berharga. Perdagangan seks adalah pelacuran yang tidak dipilih oleh orang dewasa untuk berpartisipasi. Anak di bawah umur tidak dapat secara hukum menyetujui pertukaran seks untuk sesuatu yang berharga, apakah itu uang tunai, obat-obatan, makanan, atau tempat tidur, jadi kapan pun anak di bawah umur berpartisipasi dalam seks komersial mereka' kembali diperdagangkan.

Perdagangan seks terjadi di seluruh Amerika Serikat, termasuk di Vermont. "Tidak hanya di Rutland, tidak hanya di Burlington dan South Burlington," kata Matt Prouty, seorang komandan di Departemen Kepolisian Kota Rutland. "Itu terjadi di setiap komunitas - pedesaan, perkotaan, apa saja."

Sumber Daya Perdagangan

Jika Anda yakin Anda atau seseorang yang Anda kenal sedang diperdagangkan di Vermont, hubungi 2-1-1 untuk mendapatkan bantuan. If you are a trafficking victim, this will not trigger the involvement of law enforcement unless you want it to.

To contact the National Human Trafficking Hotline, call 1-888-373-7888 or text 233733.

If you or someone you know is in immediate danger, call 9-1-1.

Police, prosecutors and advocates I spoke with described the problem as "big" and "sizable," even "rampant" in the state, but I was warned that what little data there are don't reflect the scope of the problem sex trafficking is significantly underreported. A federal grant application submitted last year by the statewide Human Trafficking Task Force shows that the number of victims who received services in Vermont jumped by almost 400 percent between 2015 and 2017, from 31 to 150 people. The number of sex trafficking investigations doubled in that same period of time, from 31 to 64. And the number of prosecutions nearly tripled, from two to seven.

One of the defendants was Diheim Young, who in 2016 became the first person to be convicted of sex trafficking in Vermont. Later this month, Brian Folks is expected to be the first accused sex trafficker to go before a Vermont jury. Folks has been charged with trafficking five adult women and one minor, though there are many more identified and unidentified victims, according to Abigail Averbach, who was the lead prosecutor on the case before leaving the U.S. Attorney's Office earlier this year.

Both Folks and Young were charged with sex and drug trafficking. Both allegedly used heroin to coerce girls and women into the sex trade. The definition of coercion includes "threats of serious harm" two separate court cases in 2015 established that opioid withdrawal qualifies as serious harm.

"When somebody is withdrawing or detoxing from opiates," explained Aron Steward, assistant clinical director of Woodside Juvenile Rehabilitation Center in Colchester, "they are willing to do anything not to be withdrawing and detoxing from opiates," which makes them vulnerable to being trafficked.

"We have drug pushers that have figured out, 'Hey . if females are addicted [to opioids] we can get control of them, and we can use them profitably to enter them into the sex trade,'" said Lance Burnham, a detective lieutenant with the Vermont State Police.

And the sex trade is profitable, "far more lucrative than drug trafficking," according to Cindy Maguire, an assistant Vermont attorney general. "It's a much better business model," said Averbach, a former assistant U.S. attorney in the state. "You can sell a bag of dope only one time, but you can sell a girl over and over and over again."

A Thin Line

On January 3, 2001, a Vermont teenager was found murdered in a Bronx apartment. Christal Jones, 16, was one of more than a dozen Vermont teenagers and women who had been brought to New York as part of what was described at the time as a "prostitution and heroin ring." No one was ever charged with Jones' death, but two people, Jose Rodriguez and Beverly Holland, were eventually convicted of running two separate businesses in which they lured girls and women from Vermont to New York to do commercial sex work. There is nothing to indicate that heroin was a part of Holland's operation, but the girls under Rodriguez's control, including Jones, did use heroin, and he was ultimately convicted of giving it to one of them.

Jones "was one of our really profound first exposures to this world" said Jackie Corbally, who worked with her in 1999 and 2000 at Spectrum Youth & Family Services and is now opioid policy manager with the Burlington Police Department. "She found herself in this horrible place . and she didn't make it back. It was really new for Vermont, and . there are times where the state has been really naïve."

What happened to Jones and more than a dozen other girls and women was seen as an anomaly most Vermonters remained naïve about sex trafficking for more than another decade. The state was one of the last in the country to enact its own human trafficking statute, in 2011. Even then it did so not because there was a perceived problem — "the driving force was the fact that Vermont did not [yet] have a statute," according to Maguire.

"There's a thin line between prostitution and sex trafficking," a trafficking survivor told me. In the decade after Jones' death, Colchester Police Lt. Jim Roy would frequently run into situations that he said had "all the earmarks" of commercial sex work at area hotels.

At the time many viewed prostitution as a "victimless crime," according to Roy, a transaction between two consenting adults that, while illegal, wasn't hurting anyone. But this idea outraged him. He said he began having "heated conversations" about the fact that "there are victims all down the line of this." He described the signs of addiction he saw in women doing commercial sex work: "visible use marks . veins just all full of puncture holes and blown out from injecting in spots."

"For a long time people were saying there is a choice involved," said Steward, "so it wasn't trafficking, it wasn't a chargeable offense. It was simply a job choice. And in Vermont . people were just saying, 'It simply doesn't happen here.'"

When I asked Heather Ross, a former assistant U.S. attorney who prosecuted Young and served as the cochair of Vermont's Human Trafficking Task Force for three years, whether the problem had been overlooked or was just starting to explode in the past several years, she said, "Yes to both. I do think the opiate addiction crisis has created this horrible situation where people can be so easily controlled by their addiction because the addiction itself is so powerful. But do I also think we were missing it? Yes. I think . it was happening, and we were not aware."

If any of the women Roy encountered were being trafficked, they weren't reporting it. But the crime is rarely reported. Most people who experience it aren't even aware of what sex trafficking is, let alone that it's happening to them. The language they use to describe their experience is the lingo of commercial sex — the life, the game, hustling, going on dates. They see themselves as prostitutes, not victims of sex trafficking.

"Somebody is trafficked over a period of time," Averbach explained, "so you're not getting raped, beaten, burned, threatened each and every time you go out and commit a commercial sex act. You only really need to beat somebody one time. And the rest of the time, you can just threaten to do that again. And so it looks and starts to feel like choice." Some trafficking victims aren't raped, beaten or burned at all, making the line between trafficking and choice even more difficult to see.

Stigma is also a barrier to reporting. "The shame is so great," said Ross, who now works in private practice in Burlington. "I encountered so many victim survivors who felt as if because they had made some bad choices" — using drugs, for example — "therefore everything that happened to them they thought they were responsible for, no matter how bad . They've normalized the experience, they're ashamed of the experience, they feel guilt. That's all part of the traffickers' manipulation as well."

Because sex trafficking is not reported, it must be discovered, and because no one was looking for it in Vermont in the decade after Christal Jones' death, no one was finding it.

'Something Didn't Seem Right'

In 2011, the same year Vermont finally passed its statute, then-assistant U.S. attorney Ross got what is referred to as a "duty case" — federal prosecutors rotate who is on duty to respond to situations that need immediate attention, and Ross happened to be on call when law enforcement came across a car pulled over on the side of a Vermont road. The driver said he was trying to find a farm and had gotten lost. His passenger, a woman in her thirties, was undocumented and had a conviction for prostitution in her home country. She had no idea where she was.

"Something about this even in 2011 didn't seem right," Ross said.

An investigation revealed the driver had brought the woman up from New York City to perform commercial sex work with laborers at farms. That particular case was ultimately not prosecuted as sex trafficking, but Ross and assistant AG Maguire decided to reconfigure the task force that had originally been established to create a human trafficking statute. They invited law enforcement, including Prouty and Burnham, to join, and they focused on training police working in the drug world.

"We did that because we already had the infrastructure in place," said Maguire. "We had cops on the street that were very eager to do drug work." Police were trained to look at drug scenes differently, to recognize that "if there's a woman present . they are likely to be a trafficking victim."

Burnham, who had been in law enforcement for 14 years when he was appointed to the task force in 2013, said that he "didn't know what [sex trafficking] was, didn't know it existed." He had risen through the ranks working in the state's criminal division, where he'd handled sexual assault and child abuse cases in the special investigations unit. When he walked into his first meeting with the task force, he was thinking, "We don't have this problem in Vermont, I know nothing about this, I would have heard about this . It's not something I want to waste my time with."

He left feeling "overwhelmed. I didn't know the issue was as bad as it was. It was an eye-opening experience, to say the least."

"There was a lot of educating about what human trafficking looks like and how people can be controlled through their addiction and that control and force and fraud and coercion [are not] that old-fashioned view of someone locked up in a basement," said Ross. "There are many, many other ways to control people."

"When I wasn't looking for it, I didn't realize it was a problem," Prouty said. "As I started to educate myself . the light bulb went on. Then all of a sudden I'm seeing it everywhere."

A Federal Case

I didn't interview any of the women Brian Folks is accused of sex trafficking, so I can't tell you what they look like, where they grew up, whether they have kids. I don't even know their names court documents identify them by numbers and letters — Victim 1, Minor Victim E — or initials. But after reading those documents I can tell you some of what law enforcement saw when it finally started looking.

Everything that follows is either summarized or taken verbatim from documents filed in the Folks case, including affidavits from law enforcement officers. Everything here is alleged to have happened Brian Folks pleaded not guilty to all of the charges against him and has not yet gone to trial, let alone been convicted. Folks' lawyer had no comment for this article.

From June 2012 through March 2016 Folks allegedly ran a pair of "separate, yet intertwined illegal businesses" in Burlington. One was a prostitution business the other sold heroin and crack. Women who worked for Folks' prostitution business often worked for his drug business, as well, bagging or moving drugs.

In 2012, Victim 4, who was 17 and homeless, fell in love with Folks and soon started having sex with him. When she first heard that Folks prostituted women and sold drugs, she didn't believe it, but when she needed money and asked Folks for help, he took photos of her in her bra and underwear and posted them on Backpage, a website that at the time was used to advertise commercial sex. While at first Folks let her have half the money she made, he eventually began keeping it all.

Victim 1 met Brian Folks in May 2015 and immediately began working for his drug business. Among other duties, Victim 1 said she and other women bagged heroin and crack, which Folks would sometimes demand that they do naked or in their underwear.

Several months after she began working for his drug operation, Folks suggested to Victim 1 that she work for him as a prostitute. She wouldn't at first, but eventually Folks refused to give her heroin, and when she started to become dopesick, he took her to a hotel where she "had her first 'date' as a prostitute." Afterward, Folks picked her up, took more than half of what she had been paid and let her have heroin. After that, Folks, "supplied her with a steady stream of heroin . in what appeared to be an effort to keep her compliant."

Victim 2 was already doing commercial sex work when she met Folks, who responded to her online ad. At their first "date," Folks asked Victim 2 if he could pay her using heroin instead of money, and she agreed. Folks became her dealer, and she paid him for drugs with cash or sex. Folks asked Victim 2 to work for him as a prostitute, but she refused until she was dopesick. Folks tried to withhold drugs until she'd had her first "date" working for him, but after Victim 2 protested he provided her with a small amount of drugs and promised to give her more afterward.

At a trailer in Colchester, Folks used his phone to take "sexually suggestive" photos of Victim 2 and posted them on Backpage. After receiving a response, he drove Victim 2 to the parking lot of the Staples in South Burlington, where she had sex with the man who had responded to the ad in exchange for $100.

Folks allegedly prostituted dozens of women, some through force, fraud or coercion. Once he'd recruited them, he'd post photos of them on Backpage. He kept track of the money they earned and took some or all of it.

If they didn't want to do commercial sex work, Folks forced some of them to, using threats of and actual physical and sexual violence and by withholding the heroin they were addicted to.

He created a "climate of fear" that involved extorting and blackmailing women by threatening to post sexually explicit photos of them online, and then actually doing so, as well as forcing them to have sex with him and his friends before he would let them have heroin. Women who refused or broke his rules were "violated" by Folks — his term to describe punishment.

When one of the alleged victims stole five bags of heroin, Folks told her she was lucky he didn't kill her and that she'd have to "work off" what she'd taken. He drove her to a cemetery near Riverside Avenue in Burlington, where he gave her heroin and forced her to have sex with him next to a dumpster.

Folks made videos in which he "coerced women to engage in humiliating conduct as a method of degrading them in order to further control them." In one video series which, according to court documents, Folks called "That's my bitch you're violating," he urinated on two of his drug workers. In another video he announced, "'I'm just pissing on bitches, man, I'm gonna see how far I can go.'"

I don't know who these women are. I don't know if they have brown hair or blond, if they like to stay inside on rainy days and binge-watch Netflix or go out without an umbrella and feel the rain on their skin. What I do know is that they are not what you just read they are not what is in those court documents. That is who Folks is alleged to be.

If convicted of sex trafficking, he could spend the rest of his life in prison.

Trial and Errors

Folks and Young aren't the only men charged with sex trafficking in Vermont. Timothy Galloway was convicted at the state level. And Naquan Bowie, Anthony Smith, Gary Delima and Sharif Cargo were all charged with sex trafficking but ended up pleading guilty to or being convicted of other crimes, usually drug- or gun-related. Prosecuting sex trafficking cases is challenging, for myriad reasons.

"It takes a long time for these cases to play out," said Averbach, "and in that year or so that it takes to get from charging to verdict, people relapse, people die, people leave the state, people are trafficked again, they become homeless, we lose them." Not only that, testifying can be "retraumatizing" for victims. As a result, prosecutors sometimes allow perpetrators to "plead to something like a drug crime or a firearms count . that doesn't depend on the victim taking the stand and exposing all of the trauma that happened to her," said Averbach.

Even in a best-case scenario when a victim is willing and able to testify, "Our legal system generally, and our criminal justice system in particular, is not very conducive to understanding how trauma impacts someone," said Ross.

For example, juries are instructed to judge the credibility of a witness. Someone who has been sex trafficked "typically doesn't recall information in a linear fashion," according to Ross instead they remember "snatches" of what happened to them. "Our justice system historically has told us that if someone can't give you a story from A to Z, [if there are] inconsistencies in their story, [that] suggests that they're not credible. Well, that doesn't really match with what we know about how trauma affects people and their ability to recall and recite what happened to them."

It's been three years since Folks was initially arrested, seven since his first victim was allegedly trafficked. The case has been delayed numerous times and is on its fourth trial date, which is April 23. Victims and witnesses have died.

A significant delay occurred when one of Folks' lawyers withdrew from representing him. To protect witnesses in the case from being publicly identified, a protective order states that Folks, who is in prison, is "not to be left alone with" the government's witness list, among other materials. But the lawyer inadvertently mailed Folks a copy of the list, which includes the names of his victims. Folks then sent the list to his wife, and it was subsequently photographed and posted on Facebook, according to statements in a court transcript.

"The only purpose of disseminating the list such as this is to quiet these witnesses, to intimidate them, to harass them, and to not cooperate with the government and not be able to testify at trial," Averbach argued during a hearing on the matter.

The judge at the hearing apparently agreed, chastising Folks' then-lawyer: "This is how people get murdered, right?"

'I Owed Him'

Sitting in my living room with her baby sleeping in a car seat beside her, Kathleen told me she was sure her trafficker was going to murder her when she left him, how he would sit in the parking lot of the clinic where she got her methadone, just out of range of the security cameras, and point a gun at her. "The message was basically come back or die," she said.

Kathleen (not her real name) is tall, her dark red hair pulled into a thin ponytail, with icy blue eyes set deeply in their sockets. It's easier to imagine her at the wheel of a station wagon driving her daughter to the grocery store than walking "the strip" in the small southern city where she was trafficked eight years ago.

When I asked Kathleen if she had any happy memories from childhood, she said no: Her father and stepmother physically and emotionally abused her. She moved to Vermont to live with her mother and sister when she was a teenager, then back south, where she joined the Marines. During boot camp she discovered she was pregnant and had to leave.

"I was happy to be a mother," she said, but she had envisioned raising her son with his father, and they separated after he cheated on her before the baby was born.

Through mutual agreement, her son went back and forth between Kathleen and her ex's house. She'd had a drinking problem since she was a teenager, but she didn't get drunk when her son was with her. However, because of her drinking, her ex was granted primary custody when her son was 4 years old Kathleen was allowed to have him every weekend. Soon her ex stopped permitting weekend visits, and then he disappeared. After several days of being unable to reach him, she went to his house: "I'm banging on the door," she said. "I looked through the windows and everything's gone. My son was gone, [my ex] was gone, everything was gone."

After a couple of months of not being able to locate her son, she started using hard drugs, "mostly cocaine," Kathleen said. Since her son was born, she had been living a stable life in the small county where she grew up. But after he disappeared, "I couldn't stand looking at everything without my son there," she said, and she moved to a small city 90 miles away.

There her drug use worsened, though she didn't use opioids until she injured her wrist in a car accident and a doctor prescribed her oxycodone. "He didn't even give me an MRI," she recalled, "just prescribed me this opiate." He continued to prescribe it until she showed up for her appointment one day and found "yellow tape everywhere. The doctor had been shut down because he'd been illegally prescribing."

By then she was addicted, though she hadn't realized that was why she got sick when she didn't take the pills, that she was starting to withdraw. "I knew that I had a drinking problem," she said, "but I didn't think that the drugs were a problem." She started buying oxys illegally, and when she lost her job and then her apartment, a dealer offered her pills and a place to stay. It was all free at first, "but I owed him," she said. After a couple of weeks, when he told her she needed to pay back her debt, she had no other choice but to do what he asked. "I didn't have anywhere else to go," she said. The dealer rented all of the apartments in one building, out of which he ran his businesses — drugs and prostitution. The 10 to 15 women who worked for him at a time stayed in one apartment and worked out of another that Kathleen called the "brothel."

Her trafficker told Kathleen that she was too good for prostitution, that she could leave anytime she wanted. "He was like, 'Hey, if you ever want to stop, you just let me know and I won't sell you anything else and you can get out of the life on the spot.'

"I legitimately believed that everything was my choice," she said, though there were "red flags." The women were regularly beaten for breaking the rules, of which there were many, including quotas they had to meet. They weren't allowed to buy drugs from anyone but the trafficker. He took all of the money they made, except for a few dollars here and there to buy food. She still thought she could leave if she wanted to and that the other women were choosing to be there as well, though she never saw anyone try to go.

"He made it seem like he cared about our lives," Kathleen said. "Like, 'Nobody will care for you more than I will.'" And at this point Kathleen didn't care about her own life. "Drugs were the only thing I lived for," she said. "I was hoping that I would die at some point. I wanted it to end, I wanted to die without my son, without having a purpose. I didn't care about myself anymore."

For 10 months Kathleen worked for her trafficker, having sex with buyers she met on the strip or who responded to an ad on Backpage. And then she learned that her son and his father were living not too far away she had a reason to live. "I wanted to clean up," she said, "and I wanted to be part of my son's life again if at all possible."

At that point, "I felt like I could never leave, I was afraid to, but because he told me I was allowed to, I decided to try it." One of her customers had told her that if she ever wanted to get out of the life she could come and live with him. She paid her trafficker the $20 she owed him and even gave him a tip, and then told him she was leaving.

"He took out a nightstick in front of the other girls and beat me from head to toe," she said. "I ripped three toenails off trying to get away from him. He split my head open." And then he locked her in a room in the apartment they called the brothel he cleaned her wounds he apologized for beating her but "he told me it was for my own good and that I needed to stay in line now." For two weeks he kept her locked in that room, but he didn't leave her alone there. He would bring customers to the room and force her to have sex with them, and in between "he would give me small amounts of substances to get me through."

Two weeks later, he let her out of the room thinking she had learned her lesson and sent her out on the strip. When she recognized an undercover cop, she saw an opportunity and propositioned him to get herself arrested. After she was released from jail, she got on methadone and went to live with the customer who said he would take her in. When her trafficker continued to stalk her, she started a rumor that she was dead and moved back to Vermont.

'No Other Choice'

What happened to Kathleen bears some similarities to sex trafficking cases in Vermont. But people I spoke with cautioned me that there is no "usual way" trafficking occurs, in Vermont or anywhere.

"Every single case looks different," said Steward of Woodside.

While most known cases involve women, men are trafficked as well.

Children are also victimized. Between 2014, when officials began tracking these data, and 2018, the Department for Children and Families received more than 125 reports that involved children being sex trafficked. DCF does not track whether opioids played a role in those cases, but I was told "anecdotally" that drugs are more likely to be a factor with younger children, ages 6 to 9, who are being trafficked by their parents or other caregivers, possibly to support an opioid addiction.

Seven Days has also reported on Vermont massage parlors that offer illegal sexual services and whose employees are likely victims of trafficking, but where opioids are usually not involved.

If there is one thing sex trafficking cases have in common, it is that they are usually invisible. Even after I thought I understood what trafficking looks like, how insidious it can be, I didn't see it when it was right in front of me.

Suzanne (not her real name) was one of the first people I spoke to for this story. She told me she hadn't been sex trafficked, and I agreed with her until weeks later, when I played a recording of our interview. As her soft, hoarse voice unspooled in my kitchen one night, I heard what I had missed when we first talked.

I met Suzanne on a wintry Sunday afternoon after she'd gotten home from church. We had planned to get together several times, but Suzanne had canceled repeatedly. She messaged me as I was on my way to meet her that afternoon saying she was so nervous she felt sick but that I should come anyway. When I arrived, she was waiting for me on the front porch.

Suzanne cries easily, but she smiles easily, too, and when she does she covers her mouth with her hand to hide the fact that she's missing her front teeth, which were knocked out by an abusive boyfriend. If you walked by her on the street and didn't know her, you probably wouldn't notice her. But when you're sitting across from her listening to her talk, you don't want to leave.

When Suzanne was 13 years old, she sneaked out of her family's Franklin County home and went to a party, where she got drunk and stoned for the first time. All night she resisted a 19-year-old guy who was coming on to her. "I kept saying, "'No, no, no,'" she told me, but he had sex with her when she passed out. She got pregnant and had her first baby when she was 14 years old.

"For two years I did it all on my own," Suzanne said. "School, daycare, homework, school, daycare, homework, and then I tried working as well, and that didn't work." When she was 16 it "all came crashing down." She had what she described as a nervous breakdown that started with an anxiety attack, during which she was sure she was dying. She dropped out of school and left her daughter in her mother's care.

"I just wanted to experience life," she said, "but I did it wrong by partying and using." For a year straight she smoked crack. "And then one day I had enough and I called my mom, and she came and got me." Back at her mom's house, she slept for days.

For the next several years Suzanne stayed away from hard drugs. She got married, had a second and third child, left her husband. But she lost custody of her kids for reasons unrelated to drug use, and "that's when things got bad," she said. "I failed as a mom and that's the only thing I wanted in life." She soon started taking opioid-based painkillers, which "just made me feel so much better," she said. "Drugs were like an antidepressant for me. They made me numb, and I didn't have to think about anything." She worked long hours at a job she liked, and while opioids make some people sleepy, they helped Suzanne to stay awake.

As her habit worsened, she went to rehab at Maple Leaf Farm and tried medication-assisted treatment when she got out, but the clinic required that she attend three group sessions a week, which didn't work with her job. She went off her medication and "ended up relapsing, of course," she said.

When she was 25, she started dating a man named Harold and went to live with him in upstate New York. "I thought he was the love of my life," she said, but he quickly became abusive. He knocked out her teeth, broke a bottle over her head. When Harold was sent to prison for a year on unrelated charges, Suzanne returned to her mother's house in Vermont. She now had an expensive opioid habit but no job to pay for it, so when a farmworker she knew told her he had friends who "needed someone," she started doing sex work at farms in Franklin and Addison counties.

"I went from farm to farm," she said, having sex with migrant workers she made $700 a night "at least." At times Suzanne spoke almost affectionately about the men who bought sex from her, whom she called her "friends" and referred to as "good people." But "bad stuff" was happening as well: She cried as she described a customer holding a gun to her head. Another night a man she refused to have sex with attacked her and bit her clitoris so badly she had to go to the hospital, though she didn't report what happened because she didn't want the other men, some of whom were in the country illegally, to get in trouble.

Other women she met at farms had pimps who drove them and took a cut of what they made. There were some she thought were probably being trafficked, girls who were underage or whose drivers were gang members, who arrived in cars with out-of-state plates.

If Suzanne had a pimp, it wasn't a human it was a pill. She started doing the sex work to support her addiction, but "I needed a lot of drugs to do that. Selling your body, the whole time you're pretty much killing yourself mentally, thinking about how worthless you are and how this is how your life is always going to be, this is all you're good for."

When Harold got out of jail, Suzanne wanted to stop working, but he "kind of enforced it," she said.

This is what I missed the first time I heard her story. This is what I didn't hear:

Suzanne wanted to stop working, but Harold "kind of enforced it because we needed the money. He said, 'Well, you did it while I was in jail you can do it now. It's more important now.'" He was "not forceful like he was going to kill me over it, but enough to where I knew I had no other choice."

I think of Suzanne covering her smile with her hand to hide the missing teeth that Harold punched out of her mouth. Of her knocking on doors in the middle of the night in rural upstate New York trying to find help after he had beaten her up. Harold didn't have to hit Suzanne when he insisted she prostitute herself. Everything about her life with him showed her that when he made that demand, she didn't have a choice.

'Make It Stop'

When my sister died last fall, I described in her obituary the week and a half Maddie was home with our family a couple months earlier. What I didn't mention was that she had returned to Vermont from Rhode Island via a New Hampshire prison after being sex trafficked again. This time the cigarette burns were on her face, and she'd been burned on her feet, as well, with a curling iron, after she tried to run away.

When Maddie was trafficked in New York in 2013, there was very little awareness that sex trafficking existed in Vermont, let alone services to help people who had survived it. By the time she returned to Vermont last summer, the state's Human Trafficking Task Force had trained more than 2,000 individuals, including police officers, hotel staff, teachers and health care workers, to recognize signs of the crime. There was a human trafficking caseworker based out of the South Burlington Police Department. Since her position was created a year and a half ago, that caseworker has worked with 70 victims of sex trafficking, including my sister and Kathleen.

She helped Maddie enroll in medication-assisted treatment, set up her phone, find clothes. Together they developed a plan: As a condition of her release from the New Hampshire jail, Maddie was entering an outpatient program at Brattleboro Retreat. While she was there, the caseworker was going to help her apply to a long-term residential program outside of Boston for women who have been trafficked. She was experiencing intense post-traumatic stress disorder, she was craving drugs, she was heartsick over not being able to see her son, but she seemed hopeful.

There is now a second caseworker, in Rutland, dedicated solely to working with victims of human trafficking. Both of these positions were created by the Human Trafficking Task Force, which for the past nine years has operated essentially as an ad hoc group of volunteers. "We have no statutory authority, we have no budget, we are voluntary," said Maguire.

Last fall the group received a $1.2 million federal grant that will be used to hire three additional people to work full time on human trafficking in the state. "The focus has primarily been on education and awareness," said Maguire, but with this grant the focus will shift to "victim services and also a much more coordinated effort by law enforcement."

In Burlington the task force is currently "working with the mayor on a three-step housing solution," according to Averbach, which would comprise short-term, emergency beds for victims in crisis, an intermediate step of up to 30 days in which they can begin to stabilize, and long-term housing with wraparound services.

Equally important is helping survivors recover emotionally from what they've experienced.

After Kathleen was trafficked and moved back to Vermont, she started going by "Kathy." "I didn't want to be [Kathleen] anymore," she said. Her addiction intensified as she used drugs to cope with what happened to her. "I would have full physical flashbacks," she said, "and coming out of that I would need to use something just to make it stop." She began using heroin, while before she had only taken pills.

Six months ago, Kathleen's daughter was born while she was incarcerated at Chittenden Regional Correctional Facility in South Burlington. A week later they were reunited at the Lund Family Center in Burlington, where they now live. For the first time, Kathleen has been addressing the trauma at the root of her addiction. She's in therapy she hopes to go to college in the fall she's made herself a shield that hangs on her wall to remind her of her coping skills. And she has started going by Kathleen again. "I realized there was nothing wrong with [Kathleen]," she said. "She just needs a lot of help."

"We need to understand this is a form of trauma," said Corbally of the Burlington Police Department, "that trauma services need to be offered to these women. We need to recognize that this is a co-occurring issue," meaning that survivors of sex trafficking often have substance-use and mental-health issues that need to be treated in order to fully recover. "We're all after the same goal, which is to make sure women are safe and getting services, but we're doing it within the confines of a system that is not fully caught up to us," said Corbally. "It's really significant that the system catch up, because it's happening, it's out there, it's going on every single day."

Between the two times my sister was aware she was trafficked, she did sex work. Her boyfriend, who was physically abusive, relied on her to do that work to support their addictions. He also publicly shamed her for it on his Facebook page, posting that the mother of his son was a prostitute.

Traffickers don't just use violence or drugs to coerce their victims into having commercial sex they manipulate their relationship with them. "The biggest form of coercion I have seen," said Matt Prouty, "is love."

In the weeks I've been working on this story, I've wondered if any of the nameless women described in the court documents I've read were Maddie. If she worked for Folks or Galloway, if it was one of them she was running from when she called my mom at 4 a.m. one March night last year from a Dunkin' Donuts using a stranger's cellphone. It was 15 degrees outside, but she was barefoot and had a black eye. My mom picked her up and took her home, but she didn't want help as soon as her bruise faded she was gone. My mom later found texts Maddie had sent from her phone: I'm ready to party if you have any drugs.

"I take every opportunity that I can get to have a conversation with people about [this]," Prouty said. "I tell them what I've seen, what I've heard, what I've known traffickers have done to their victims. I'm talking about the God-awful underbelly of the sex market that nobody wants to talk about. And I ask, 'What if this was your son or daughter? What if it was your wife?"

What if it was your sister?

I'm telling you about Maddie so this story is not just a list of pseudonyms and anonymous voices. In newspaper articles and court documents, we change the names of the women this happened to we don't reveal their identities in order to protect them. But we didn't protect them. For a long time we didn't protect them because we didn't know sex trafficking was happening. But now we do. Now you know it is happening. And now you know what it looks like.

Butuh bantuan?

If you or someone you love are suffering from opioid use disorder and need treatment and support resources, here's how to get connected:

  • In Vermont: Call 2-1-1, a free and confidential resource hotline provided by the United Way of Vermont.
  • Outside Vermont: Call 1-800-662-HELP, a free, confidential 24-hour hotline run by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

"Hooked: Stories and Solutions From Vermont's Opioid Epidemic" is made possible in part by funding from the Vermont Community Foundation, the University of Vermont Health Network and Pomerleau Real Estate. The series is reported and edited by Seven Days news staff underwriters have no influence on the content.